"Green" design strategy for CFL luminaires

As more and more regions launch actions to phase out traditional incandescent lamps, our attention has also turned to the ever-changing field of lighting. The latest lighting alternatives in the field are said to offer lower energy consumption, better durability and longer life, leading to better lighting solutions for the new century, while reducing energy consumption and saving This is very attractive for consumer spending.

The two products that have begun to gain popularity in the mass market are compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and LED lamps. Both of these offer the above advantages, but this article will focus on CFL technology, and we will analyze a non-dimmable CFL luminaire from Chinese manufacturer Baishi.

The spiral tube CFL was first introduced in 1976 by Edward E. Hammer, the father of modern fluorescent lighting technology. Although this design has been greatly improved compared to incandescent lamps, at the time, the owners of General Electric did not adopt. CFL with electronic ballast OSRAM (Osram) launched in 1985, but until 1995 CFL lights began commercial production.

To understand why a 20W CFL can produce the same brightness as a 75W incandescent lamp, it is necessary to understand each component of the CFL lamp. Like other fluorescent lamps, this CFL uses a U-shaped glass tube with the inner wall coated with phosphorus that emits visible light when exposed to ultraviolet radiation from ionized gases in the tube.

In order to be suitable for the size of the home market, CFL designs generally use a smaller glass tube diameter and adopt a straight-through folding or spiral bending structure. The electronic ballast used to illuminate the lamp is designed with the space constraints of the standard screw socket lamp fully considered. In order to achieve this design, a reduced power supply is required to create a suitable luminaire driver with a relatively small area.

U-glass tubes coated with phosphorous coatings have a history of manufacturing, but chemical engineering enthusiasts may be more interested in this history. From the consumer's point of view, the loss of the phosphor coating on the inside of the tube is a major problem. Despite this, the life of high quality CFL lamps can last for months or even years.

Another important point when looking at this particular CFL luminaire is a through hole in the lamp housing. This via suggests that the loss of ballast electronics associated with heat dissipation is also a factor influencing lamp life.

A typical electronic ballast contains a small circuit board that allows the consumer to conveniently replace the incandescent lamp with a CFL lamp. The electronic ballast provides an initial energy boost to turn on the CFL lamp and then limits the current to the nominal operating value of the lamp used.

The ballast design uses transistors, diodes, and a number of capacitors and inductors. These devices first rectify the AC power supply and then create a follow-on resonant inverter circuit that produces a high-frequency, high-voltage power supply that illuminates the CFL lamp. One of the most important components in this electronic ballast is NXP Semiconductors' half-bridge CFL driver chip UBA2211.

The UBA2211 can drive up to 25W CFL lamps from 110VAC or 220VAC input voltages, a feature that is necessary in any electronic ballast used in modern CFLs. However, one of the main advantages of the UBA2211 is its over-temperature protection (OTP) and capacitive mode protection (CMP) functions. OTP and CMP monitor voltage, current, and power consumption, and ensure proper shutdown of the system under abnormal conditions, and the combustion portion is safely disposed of at the end of its life. The UBA2211 also provides saturation current protection (SCP) during the initial power-up phase of the CFL startup so that the CFL can operate at saturation current limits without damaging the power transistors in the electronic ballast.

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