Solar LED street light system using PAM2842

The simplest application of solar energy is to produce hot water, followed by electricity generation. An important application of power generation is lighting. China's lighting power accounts for 12% of the total electricity consumption. Due to the high cost of building large solar power plants and the large area of ​​high-power solar panels, the best way to achieve solar lighting is with light-emitting devices. Combined, they form a separate lighting device. At present, the most promising are solar street lights, solar garden lights, solar lawn lights, solar signal lights and solar beacon lights. Among them, solar LED street lights have the highest economic value. This is because ordinary street lamps need to be laid with long transmission lines. The laying of power lines requires a high cost, and as the distance increases, the voltage will gradually decrease, and the transformer will be boosted after a certain distance. Solar street lights are not the case. Since each street light pole is independent, there is no need to lay a transmission line, which greatly reduces the cost of erection. On the other hand, LEDs have much higher luminous efficiency than incandescent lamps, although they are numerically lower than high-pressure sodium lamps (high-pressure sodium lamps have a luminous efficiency of 132 lm/W and LEDs have only 70 lm/W), but the spectral dispersion of high-pressure sodium lamps A large part of it is in yellow, red and infrared, which has no effect on actual illumination, and a large part of the light is scattered in all directions. Therefore, from the actual road surface illumination effect (illuminance), the 150 watt LED is equivalent to a 400 watt high pressure sodium lamp. Assuming that the street lamp works 10 hours a day, then in 2 years, the 400 watt high pressure sodium lamp consumes 2920 kWh, while the 150 watt LED consumes only 1095 kWh, saving 2.66 times. In addition, LEDs have a long life and do not need to be replaced frequently. The life of a high-pressure sodium lamp is 4000 hours. Assuming that it works 10 hours a day, it can only work for 400 days, and it will be replaced more than a year. The life of a high-power LED is 50,000 hours. It is assumed that it will work 10 hours a day and will need to be replaced in 13.7 years. This greatly saves maintenance costs.

Take the example of setting up 250 street lamps at a distance of 5 kilometers. The cost of cable laying, power distribution equipment and inspection wells for ordinary street lamps will cost 1.53 million yuan. The solar street lamp can save this cost; the electricity cost of the ordinary street lamp is also very considerable. In the above example, the ordinary street lamp needs to consume 5.475 million yuan in 15 years, and the solar street lamp only needs to replace the battery once, about 375,000 yuan. Moreover, the working voltage of the solar street lamp is low, and there is absolutely no electric shock accident. LEDs have a long life span and require almost no replacement for 15 years. On the one hand, they reduce maintenance costs and on the other hand reduce safety risks. Therefore, it is a street lamp with high cost performance. Solar garden lights and lawn lights have similar advantages, but because of the close distance and the small number, the advantages are not so significant. The United States reached 20 million LED streetlights in 2008. China had 15 million street lights in 2006 and is growing at a rate of 20% per year. The annual electricity bill for Chinese street lamps reaches 6 billion yuan, and all solar street lights can be saved.

Solar lamps are composed of five parts: solar cells, batteries, control devices, LED driver chips and LEDs themselves. Usually, the solar panel is hung on the high pole, the charge and discharge controller and the lead storage battery are placed in the ground control box, and the driver chip and the LED are mounted in the lamp holder (as shown in FIG. 1). The charge and discharge controller can only control the charging and discharging process of the battery and supply power to the LED at a time, and cannot stabilize the output voltage thereof. However, many designers have omitted the constant current drive in their design. They think that the output voltage of the lead storage battery is stable enough, and it is not necessary to use a constant current drive to directly drive the LED. This idea is wrong.

The output voltage of the battery will gradually decrease with discharge, and the output voltage changes up to about 20% during the entire discharge process. If you use it to directly power the LED, it will make a big difference in the brightness of the LED. Take the lead battery as an example, its discharge curve is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Discharge curve of lead storage battery.

As can be seen from the figure, the output voltage of the lead storage battery will drop by 2V (nearly 20%) during the entire discharge process. From the volt-ampere characteristics of the LED, 20% of the voltage change will cause a great forward current change. Figure 3 shows the volt-ampere characteristics of a 3W LED, where blue is a white LED.

Figure 3: Volt-ampere characteristics of a 3W LED.

Assuming an initial voltage of 4.2V, the forward current is 700mA. If the voltage drops to 3.5V (20%), the current is less than 180mA, which is nearly four times lower. The brightness of the LED is directly related to its forward current. For the same 3W LED, the relationship between relative luminous intensity and forward current is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Relative light intensity and forward current relationship.

As can be seen from the figure, if the forward current is reduced from 700 mA to 350 mA, the luminous intensity is reduced from 1.75 to 1.0. If the forward current is reduced to 180 mA, its luminous intensity will decrease to 0.6 (a nearly three times lower), which is not allowed.

Machine IC socket is a reasonable alternative, compared with comparable products from other manufacturers. Originally the demand for sockets occure at that times, when the computer respectively other programmable, active components have been introduced into the markets. These active components had a high-value compared with other components and users had been faced with the request to reprogram these high-value components or destroy and replace the whole device. To ensure, that such components can be replaced, a range of different sockets are produced for nearly every application, which is designed for the use with these high value active components. The most common designs are the so called Dual-Inline-sockets with different number of contacts, starting with 16 contacts and ending with 64 contacts. Depending on the chosen active component Antenk is offering 2,54mm and 1,778mm pitches. Such sockets are available with stamped and machined contacts. Machined contacts do cover the full range of lengths between 7,43mm and 25,90mm. Even double row sockets, the so called adapter sockets can be ordered, based on different pin lengths and number of contacts. Precision sockets including the four-finger contact design, LED sockets and Pga Sockets are as well part of the product range. Special sockets with e.g. special pin length, special plating and special contact loadings can be offered by Antenk upon request.

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