1 Provisions on lighting rates and facility integrity rates for urban lighting facilities
As early as 1992, the "Regulations on the Management of Urban Road Lighting Facilities" (Order No. 21 of the Ministry of Construction 1992), the requirements for the indicator of the lighting rate were first proposed: "The administrative department of urban construction must establish strict rules for the management of road lighting facilities. Inspection and assessment system, promptly urge the replacement and repair of damaged lighting facilities, so that the lighting rate is not less than 95%."
With the improvement of urban lighting management level, the "Eleventh Five-Year" Urban Green Lighting Project Planning Outline (Jianchang City  No. 48) stipulates: "The road lighting main road lighting rate reaches 98%, secondary roads, branches The road lighting rate is 96%", and the requirements for lighting rate have been improved.
The "12th Five-Year Plan for Urban Green Lighting Project" (City Building Development  No. 257) stipulates: "The lighting rate of road lighting main roads should reach 98%, and the lighting rate of secondary trunk roads and branch roads should be It reaches 96%; the road lighting facilities should have a good rate of 95%, and the landscape lighting facilities should have a perfect rate of 90%.â€ The cityâ€™s lighting facilities are also clearly defined.
However, the previous documents, including the interpretation of the documents, did not clearly define the problem of lighting rate and the rate of facility integrity, nor did they clarify the sampling methods for the lighting rate and facility integrity.
2 Definition of lighting rate and facility integrity rate
As the name implies, the problem of lighting rate is the external performance of the lighting, which is relatively intuitive and can be seen at a glance. It is the most accurate basis for evaluating the quality of maintenance; and because the lighting is not bright, it is directly related to road lighting safety and The illumination of the night scene is beautiful, so it is also the most fundamental basis for evaluation. The problem of facility integrity rate has certain concealment, and the correlation with road safety and beautiful night scenery is not as good as the lighting rate. For example, the dust of the lamps only causes the lamps to darken, but they are not completely extinguished. The impact on the lighting is not fatal. For example, the poles are rusted, which has no effect on the safety of lighting and the beauty of the night scene, but has a negative impact on the city's daytime appearance. .
However, the problem of facility integrity will eventually turn into a lighting rate problem. For example, the AC contactor in the distribution box was seriously damaged. It was originally a problem of the integrity of the facility, but it eventually caused the entire street lamp to be off, which turned into a problem of lighting rate. Not only that, but some cities even adopt the exact opposite. They believe that the lack of lighting damage is actually a kind of damage to the facility. The problem of lighting rate should be assessed as a sub-item of the problem of the integrity of the facility. Therefore, the two have some confusion in the classification of problems.
Therefore, when judging the lighting rate and the facility integrity rate, the first problem is how to define the two. The basis for the definition is to consider historical lineages, and to take into account the rationality and convenience of assessment.
Judging from the historical lineage, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development has always emphasized the indicator of lighting rate. It was not until the 2011 â€œ12th Five-Yearâ€ Urban Green Lighting Project Planning Outline document that the facility integrity rate indicator was presented. In urban lighting, the lighting rate is also the most intuitive and fundamental problem, and the connection with safety and aesthetics is the most direct. Therefore, if you encounter the problem of ambiguity, as long as the luminaire is not bright, it is more reasonable to consider the problem of lighting rate. For example, the problem of the whole row (segment) of urban lighting facilities caused by theft, accident or electrical failure is universal. A city always has several occurrences within a week, which objectively reflects the current status of urban lighting. Accidents are not counted in the lighting rate. Without this statistics, the lighting rate is reduced to false data. Due to the uncertainty of the construction and lighting time of urban roads, it is impossible to recover according to the general maintenance time limit. After filing with the competent department, it can be exempted from the lighting rate assessment. The specific classification of common problems in urban lighting facilities is as follows:
3 Discussion on the sampling method for the evaluation of lighting rate and facility integrity rate
For the assessment of lighting rate and facility integrity, there is also a problem of how to sample. For individual cities that have implemented street lamp single lamp control and street lamp management information level, the lighting rate data is automatically counted by software, and the number of samples is the total number of street lamps in the whole city. It is easier to accurately grasp the lighting rate. Despite this, it is still difficult to implement software automation statistics for landscape lighting facilities. For most cities, the degree of management information is not high, and the assessment of maintenance quality is mainly based on manual on-site assessment.
Then, in actual operation, the unclear sampling method will bring great trouble. For example, in the sampling and evaluation of street lamps, some cities use 1/5, 1/6 of the total sampling, and some cities use 1/10 sampling; most cities do not have a clear sampling method at all, but randomly determine the number of assessments: some cities use 500ç›In order to assess the sampling base, some cities use 1000 baht as the base, and some cities explicitly stipulate 10,000 baht as the base - and so on.
Therefore, in order to ensure the calculation accuracy of urban lighting lighting rate and facility integrity rate, the key is to clarify the sampling method and clarify the sample capacity at the time of sampling. In the following, only the street lamp lighting rate sampling method will be discussed. The sampling method of the landscape lamp can refer to the street lamp. The sampling method of the facility integrity rate can also be referred to the street lamp lighting rate.
According to the statistical principle, the number of street lamps in a city is the total number N. The number of street lamps n in a certain area we extracted is a sample, and the lighting rate P is actually a ratio problem. The two indicators of â€œroad lighting main road lighting rate of 98%, secondary road and branch road lighting rate of 96%â€ are actually two estimated ratio values, which can be used as reference when calculating sample capacity. Calculate the sample size according to the sample size without repeated sampling:
It can be seen that when determining the sampling quantity of streetlight assessment in this city, it should consider the lighting rate error, determine the sampling ratio according to the acceptable lighting rate error, and then determine the specific sampling quantity according to the total number of street lighting facilities in the city. From the perspective of assessment cost and data rationality, it is reasonable to control the illumination rate error at 0.2%.
In the specific operation, each city can determine the number of divided blocks (or market-based maintenance standard) according to the scope of the total amount of facilities, and determine the assessment block according to the lottery method. For example, a city has a total of 150,000 street lamps, which can divide all street lamps into 5 blocks, each block has about 30,000 street lamps; number the blocks, and randomly select a block during the assessment to ensure each time The sampling ratio is about 20%, reaching the 0.2% illumination rate error control target. For cities with a total facility of less than 10,000 baht, it is recommended to take 100% inspections during the assessment.
Lighting rate and facility integrity rate are important indicators for the evaluation of urban lighting facilities maintenance quality. The actual operation should clearly define the problem of the two, as long as it causes the lack of lighting, and ultimately affects the functionality of road lighting and the aesthetics of landscape lighting. Should be included in the range of lighting rate assessment. When the lighting rate and facility integrity rate are assessed, scientific sampling methods should be adopted according to the total amount of facilities in a particular city, and a reasonable sampling quantity should be selected to ensure the reliability of the lighting rate and facility integrity data.
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